Chewing gum, a popular pastime enjoyed by people of all ages, has been a subject of debate when it comes to its impact on our health. While some advocate for its benefits, such as freshening breath and improving focus, others raise concerns about the potential negative effects it may have on our bodies.
The effects of chewing gum can vary depending on factors such as the type of gum and your oral hygiene habits. It is essential to know the potential benefits and drawbacks of this seemingly innocuous habit to make informed decisions for your wellbeing.
Are we unknowingly inviting trouble into our lives with every juicy chew, or is it just a harmless habit that adds a touch of enjoyment to our day? In this exploration of the topic, we will delve into the potential drawbacks and benefits of chewing gum, examining the evidence from both sides of the argument to uncover the truth behind this seemingly innocent activity.
Prepare to question your assumptions and discover the real story behind the chewy delight that is chewing gum.
What Is Chewing Gum?
Chewing gum is a type of soft, flavored confectionery that is designed to be chewed but not swallowed. It has a long and fascinating history that dates back thousands of years.
The origins of chewing gum can be traced back to ancient civilizations, including the Greeks, Mayans, and Native Americans, who used various natural substances for chewing. These early forms of gum were typically made from plant resins, tree saps, or sweetened substances.
The modern chewing gum that we are familiar with today originated in the late 19th century. In 1869, a dentist named William Semple patented a chewing gum composition made from a combination of rubber, oil, and various flavorings. However, it was a young inventor named Thomas Adams who is credited with popularizing chewing gum.
Adams stumbled upon a batch of chicle, a natural gum base derived from the sapodilla tree, and began experimenting with it. Eventually, he successfully created a chewable gum product and launched the first commercially successful chewing gum brand in the United States.
How Is It Made?
The manufacturing process of chewing gum involves several key steps. Initially, a gum base is created by heating and mixing natural or synthetic materials like elastomers, waxes, and resins. This gum base provides the chewy texture and elasticity that allows the gum to be chewed for extended periods.
Once the gum base is prepared, it is combined with sweeteners, flavorings, and softeners to enhance the taste and texture of the gum. These ingredients are thoroughly mixed, and the resulting gum mixture is then formed into the desired shape and size, often through extrusion or molding processes. Finally, the gum is coated with a thin layer of sugar or a sugar substitute to prevent sticking.
Chewing gum is available in various market forms to cater to different preferences and needs.
The most common form is the traditional stick gum, which comes in rectangular sticks packaged in foil or paper.
Another popular form is pellet gum, which consists of small, round pieces that are often packaged in pocket-sized containers.
There are also chewing gum tablets that are compressed into flat shapes, as well as coated gum, which has a thin outer shell for added flavor and longer-lasting chewing experience.
Additionally, sugar-free gum has gained popularity, using sweeteners like aspartame or xylitol instead of sugar.
While the majority of chewing gum is commercially produced, there are also enthusiasts who enjoy making their own gum at home. Homemade chewing gum recipes often involve natural ingredients like gum arabic or beeswax mixed with flavorings such as essential oils or extracts.
These recipes allow individuals to personalize their gum flavors and control the ingredients used.
From ancient times to the modern era, chewing gum has evolved significantly, both in terms of its ingredients and its market forms. Whether you prefer the convenience of commercially manufactured gum or the creative experimentation of homemade recipes, the act of chewing gum continues to be a popular and enjoyable pastime for many.
When examining the ingredients commonly found in chewing gum, it becomes evident that there are several components that contribute to its composition. Understanding these ingredients is crucial when evaluating the potential effects of chewing gum on our health.
The gum base provides the chewy texture and elasticity of chewing gum. It is often made from synthetic materials like elastomers, waxes, and resins, although some natural options are available. The gum base is responsible for allowing the gum to be chewed for extended periods.
Sweeteners play a significant role in the taste of chewing gum.
Sugar-sweetened gum contains sucrose or other forms of sugar, which can contribute to dental health issues such as tooth decay if consumed excessively.
Sugar-free gum, on the other hand, contains minimal amounts of sugar, typically less than 0.5 grams per serving.
Artificial sweeteners like xylitol and aspartame are commonly used in sugar-free gums. Xylitol, a plant-based sugar substitute, is particularly beneficial for oral health, as it cannot be digested by bacteria in the mouth, thereby reducing bacterial growth. Aspartame is an artificial sweetener widely used in various food products, including sugar-free gum.
Flavorings are added to chewing gum to provide a pleasant taste experience. They can be natural or artificial and come in a wide range of options, including mint, fruit, or novelty flavors. The flavorings used in gum can vary depending on the brand and product.
Colors are often added to chewing gum to enhance its visual appeal. These colors can be natural or artificial, and they contribute to the gum’s appearance. Titanium dioxide, for example, is a whitening agent commonly used in some chewing gums.
Some chewing gums may contain preservatives to extend their shelf life and prevent spoilage. These preservatives help maintain the quality and freshness of the gum over time. It’s important to note that preservatives used in chewing gum are generally considered safe for consumption in the quantities present in the product.
While the majority of the ingredients found in chewing gum are considered safe for consumption, it’s essential to be aware of potential sensitivities or allergies to specific components.
Additionally, the presence of sugars in some chewing gums can contribute to dental health issues if proper oral hygiene practices are not followed. Choosing sugar-free gum or gums with natural sweeteners like xylitol can be a better option for those concerned about dental health.
Let’s look into the nutritional information of a 1 block (8 g) chewing gum:
- Energy: 28.8 kcal (121 kJ)
- Fat: 0.024 g
- Carbohydrate: 7.74 g
- Fiber: 0.192 g (estimated formulation based on ingredient list)
- Sugars: 5.29 g
- Potassium: 0.16 mg (estimated formulation based on ingredient list)
- Sodium: 0.08 mg (estimated formulation based on ingredient list)
- Selenium: 0.048 µg (estimated formulation based on ingredient list)
- Fluoride: 0.4 µg
These values provide a glimpse into the nutritional profile of chewing gum. It’s important to note that chewing gum is typically consumed in small quantities, and its primary purpose is not to provide substantial nutrition but rather to offer flavor and an enjoyable chewing experience.
Health Benefits of Chewing Gum
Eating chewing gum can have several potential benefits. Here are some of the advantages associated with chewing gum:
Chewing gum is often used as a quick and convenient solution for freshening breath. The act of chewing stimulates saliva production, which can help wash away bacteria and food particles that contribute to bad breath. Additionally, many chewing gums are flavored with mint or other breath-freshening agents, providing a pleasant aroma and taste.
Improved focus and concentration
Some studies suggest that chewing gum may enhance cognitive functions such as focus, attention, and memory. The repetitive chewing motion is believed to increase blood flow to the brain and stimulate neural activity, potentially leading to improved mental performance, particularly in tasks that require sustained attention.
Stress reduction and relaxation
Chewing gum has been associated with stress relief and relaxation. The rhythmic chewing motion can provide a soothing and calming effect, helping to alleviate anxiety and tension. Chewing gum may serve as a simple, accessible method for stress management in certain situations.
Appetite control and weight management
Chewing gum has been suggested as a tool to help manage appetite and control cravings. Chewing gum can provide a sensory distraction and oral stimulation, which may help reduce the desire for snacking or overeating. However, it’s important to note that the effects on appetite and weight management may vary among individuals.
Increased saliva production
Chewing gum stimulates the production of saliva, which has various benefits. Saliva helps to moisten and lubricate the mouth, aiding in digestion and swallowing. It also contains enzymes that initiate the breakdown of carbohydrates and contribute to oral hygiene by rinsing away food particles and neutralizing acids in the mouth.
While chewing gum offers these potential benefits, it’s important to make informed choices when selecting gum. Opting for sugar-free gum can help minimize the risk of dental issues associated with excessive sugar consumption.
Pros and Cons of Chewing Gum
- Stress and Anxiety Relief: Chewing gum may have a calming effect on some individuals, although the scientific evidence is mixed. There’s no concrete proof that gum has significant effects on mental health, but many people swear by it to help them feel calmer.
- Bad Breath: Chewing gum can help combat bad breath by creating extra saliva in your mouth. This additional saliva helps reduce the number of bacteria present, leading to fresher breath.
- Memory and Focus: Gum chewing may improve memory and cognitive function. The act of chewing may increase blood flow to the brain, enhancing focus and concentration.
- Jaw Pain: Aggressive or excessive gum chewing may lead to jaw pain or temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD). Overusing your jaw muscles can strain them and cause discomfort.
- Dry Mouth: While chewing gum may help with bad breath by increasing saliva production, it can also have the opposite effect if the gum contains ingredients that reduce saliva flow. Some sugar-free gums contain artificial sweeteners that can contribute to dry mouth.
- Beryllium Exposure: Although rare, some chewing gums may contain beryllium, a toxic metal that can lead to lung disease when inhaled. However, beryllium in chewing gum is typically found in trace amounts and is unlikely to pose a significant risk.
When choosing a gum to chew, opt for sugar-free variants that contain fewer than 0.5 grams of sugars per serving and use sugar alcohols like xylitol instead of artificial sweeteners. Brands like Pür gum offer healthier chewing gum options that can provide some of the benefits without the potential drawbacks.
When considering whether chewing gum is bad for you, it’s important to take a look at the scientific studies that have been conducted on this topic. One common belief is that chewing gum can help reduce stress and increase alertness. However, the evidence is mixed.
There is no concrete proof that gum has any significant effect on your mental health, focus, or weight.
A small 2012 study involving university students investigated the effects of chewing gum for two weeks. The study revealed that chewing gum may reduce stress and increase feelings of alertness. These findings provide some support for the idea that chewing gum may have potential benefits for your mental well-being and cognitive function.
In another study, researchers evaluated whether regularly chewing gum for two months would lead to weight loss in people with excessive weight or obesity. The researchers found no significant weight loss as a result of gum-chewing. So, it seems that gum may not be a reliable tool for managing your weight.
As for your dental health, the American Dental Association (ADA) has granted its Seal of Acceptance to some sugar-free chewing gums. The ADA acknowledges that chewing sugar-free gum can help increase saliva flow, reduce plaque acid, and strengthen your teeth. However, remember that gum is not a substitute for regular dental care like brushing and flossing.
When it comes to safety, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the safety of gum ingredients. The FDA has set limits on certain ingredients that may be used in gum, such as artificial sweeteners and flavorings. So, if you’re concerned about the safety of the gum you’re chewing, check its ingredients list, and ensure it falls within FDA guidelines.
What Do Medical Experts Say About Chewing Gum?
Chewing gum can have both positive and negative effects on your health. According to the Cleveland Clinic, excessive gum chewing can lead to temporomandibular disorders and cause imbalance and misalignment in your jaw by putting constant force on your temporomandibular joints, muscles, and teeth.
On the other hand, Healthline suggests that chewing gum could potentially help you cut calories and lose weight by reducing feelings of hunger. However, the results on this are inconclusive. Additionally, chewing gum may improve your dental health by freshening your breath, but it is not a replacement for proper oral hygiene practices like brushing and flossing.
Chewing gum with sugar may not pose major health risks if consumed occasionally and if you maintain good oral hygiene. However, sugar-free gum is a better choice for your dental health, as it contains less than 0.5 grams of sugars per serving and uses artificial sweeteners instead.
Incorporating gum into your oral care routine can play a limited role as an adjunct to proper brushing and flossing. However, it is essential to remember that gum should never replace your standard oral hygiene regimen. Instead, think of chewing gum as a complement to brushing and flossing, but remember to select sugar-free gum to prevent any potential harm to your teeth.
Swallowing gum occasionally is not harmful, as reported by Mayo Clinic. Your body cannot digest gum, but it does not stay in your stomach either – it simply passes through your digestive system.
Who Should Avoid It
Individuals with TMJ Disorder
If you have a temporomandibular disorder, also known as TMJ, you should avoid chewing gum. Chewing gum can put stress on your jaw joints, muscles, and ligaments, worsening any existing discomfort or pai. Limit your gum chewing to fewer than 15 minutes per day if you don’t have TMJ to help prevent potential problems.
Individuals with Phenylketonuria (PKU)
Individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU) should steer clear of gum that contains aspartame. Aspartame is an artificial sweetener widely used in sugar-free gum, and if you have PKU, your body cannot break down an amino acid called phenylalanine, which is found in aspartame. High levels of phenylalanine can cause brain damage, so it’s crucial to avoid sugar-free gum with aspartame.
Individuals with Diabetes
For those with diabetes, it is generally safe to chew sugar-free gum, as it can help maintain good oral hygiene. However, it’s important to check the ingredients list for any potential blood sugar-impacting sweeteners, such as maltitol or xylitol, and discuss gum chewing with your healthcare provider to be on the safe side.
Additionally, if you experience frequent migraines or headaches, you might want to limit your gum chewing or avoid it altogether. There’s a possibility that excessive gum chewing could contribute to these issues, although more research is needed in this area.
Remember to consult your doctor or dentist if you have concerns about the effects of chewing gum on your specific health conditions. They can help determine if gum might adversely affect your health and provide personalized recommendations.
Alternatives to Chewing Gum
If you’re concerned about the potential health effects of chewing gum, there are several alternatives that can satisfy your craving for a chewy treat. These alternatives may be more suitable for your dental and metabolic health.
Firstly, you can try sugarless gum, as it does not contain sugar that can be harmful to your teeth. Many sugarless gums contain xylitol, which not only makes the gum sweet but also has potential dental benefits. However, be aware that sugar alcohols, like xylitol and sorbitol, may cause digestive issues such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea in some individuals, especially when consumed in large quantities.
Another option to consider is licorice root. When peeled and dried, licorice root provides a healthy, chewable alternative to gum. Consuming licorice root can even help treat various stomach conditions, including reflux, canker sores, and peptic ulcers.
For those who enjoy bubble gum, it might be a bit challenging to find a perfect alternative, as bubble gum typically contains sugar and artificial flavors. However, there are some organic chewing gums on the market that use organic, non-GMO ingredients and are free of synthetic dyes and preservatives.
These alternatives might not provide the same bubble-blowing experience, but they can be a healthier choice for you.
While exploring alternatives, remember that everything is best when consumed in moderation. Overconsumption of any alternative can potentially cause unwanted side effects. Keep in mind what works best for your individual needs, dental health, and overall well-being.
Chewing gum can have both positive and negative effects on your health. The most important aspect to consider is the type of gum you are chewing. Opt for sugar-free gum to reap the benefits without putting your oral health at risk.
Chewing gum can help stimulate the production of saliva, which in turn may strengthen enamel and wash away debris in your mouth. However, remember that chewing sugary gum can contribute to tooth decay.
When it comes to weight management and reducing appetite, the evidence is mixed. Chewing gum might have a slight impact on calorie reduction and preventing overeating, but it should not be considered a primary weight loss strategy.
While some people claim that chewing gum helps relieve stress, there is no concrete proof that it has a significant effect on your mental health. The evidence for its impact on anxiety and focus is inconclusive.
To conclude, you should choose a sugar-free gum, preferably containing xylitol, to avoid potential negative effects on your oral health. Be aware that chewing gum may provide some minor benefits, but it should not be relied upon as a primary method for weight loss, stress relief, or focus enhancement.
Practice moderation and don’t chew too aggressively or too often to maintain a healthy balance.
Does chewing gum help with alertness?
Yes, chewing gum can help improve your alertness. Studies have found that chewing gum can aid in increasing blood flow to the brain, enhancing cognitive function and concentration. So, if you’re feeling a little sluggish, try popping a piece of gum to help stay focused.
Can chewing gum lead to overeating?
Contrarily, chewing gum may actually help prevent overeating. Research has shown that chewing gum can help suppress appetite and reduce calorie intake during meals. It is believed to be particularly effective when chewed within the half-hour before eating. However, it’s essential to opt for sugarless gum, as sugary versions can lead to tooth decay.
Is it true that swallowing excess air while chewing gum can lead to bloating?
Yes, chewing gum can cause you to swallow excess air, which may lead to bloating and discomfort. To minimize this, try to chew more slowly and consciously.
Are there any harmful food additives in chewing gum?
While most chewing gums are considered safe, some sugar-free varieties may contain artificial sweeteners such as aspartame or xylitol, which can cause digestive upset in large quantities. Additionally, some chewing gum contains natural food additives like mastication, which can have allergenic properties. Always check the ingredients list before choosing your gum.
Does chewing gum cause cancer?
There is currently no evidence to suggest that chewing gum is linked to an increased risk of cancer. Most chewing gum ingredients are considered safe when consumed in moderation.
What are the potential negative effects of constant gum chewing?
Constant gum chewing can put excessive force on your temporomandibular joints, muscles, and teeth, leading to overstress, imbalance, and misalignment. This may cause clicking or popping in the temporomandibular joints, headaches, jaw pain, and tooth fractures.
Allen, Andrew P., and Andrew P. Smith. “Chewing Gum: Cognitive Performance, Mood, Well-Being, and Associated Physiology.” BioMed Research International, vol. 2015, 2015, pp. 1–16, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4449949/, https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/654806.
Blaznik, Urška, et al. “Use of Food Additive Titanium Dioxide (E171) before the Introduction of Regulatory Restrictions due to Concern for Genotoxicity.” Foods, vol. 10, no. 8, 17 Aug. 2021, p. 1910, https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081910.
Chattopadhyay, Sanchari, et al. “Artificial Sweeteners – a Review.” Journal of Food Science and Technology, vol. 51, no. 4, 21 Oct. 2011, pp. 611–621, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3982014/, https://doi.org/10.1007/s13197-011-0571-1.
“Chewing Gum.” Www.ada.org, www.ada.org/en/resources . Accessed 24 May 2023.
De Luca-Monasterios, Fiorella, et al. “Efecto de Masticar Chicle Sobre La Halitosis.” Medicina Clínica, vol. 143, no. 2, 22 July 2014, pp. 64–67, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0025775314000219?via%3Dihub , https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medcli.2013.11.038 . Accessed 24 May 2023.
Dodds, Michael W. J. “The Oral Health Benefits of Chewing Gum.” Journal of the Irish Dental Association, vol. 58, no. 5, 1 Oct. 2012, pp. 253–261, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23573702/.
Early, D. M., and F. D. Provenza. “Food Flavor and Nutritional Characteristics Alter Dynamics of Food Preference in Lambs.” Journal of Animal Science, vol. 76, no. 3, 1 Mar. 1998, pp. 728–734, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9535331/, https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.763728x. Accessed 24 May 2023.
FDA. “Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives & Colors.” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2019, www.fda.gov/food/food-ingredients-packaging/overview-food-ingredients-additives-colors.
García-García, R., and S. S. Searle. “Preservatives: Food Use.” ScienceDirect, Academic Press, 1 Jan. 2016, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123849472005687.
Hetherington, Marion M., and Martin F. Regan. “Effects of Chewing Gum on Short-Term Appetite Regulation in Moderately Restrained Eaters.” Appetite, vol. 57, no. 2, Oct. 2011, pp. 475–482, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2011.06.008.
Kapourani, Afroditi, et al. “A Review on Xerostomia and Its Various Management Strategies: The Role of Advanced Polymeric Materials in the Treatment Approaches.” Polymers, vol. 14, no. 5, 22 Feb. 2022, p. 850, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8912296/, https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14050850
Klinjapo, Roungdao, and Wunwisa Krasaekoopt. “Chapter 14 – Microencapsulation of Color and Flavor in Confectionery Products.” ScienceDirect, Academic Press, 1 Jan. 2018, www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128115183000144. Accessed 24 May 2023.
Luo, Jing, et al. “The Effects of Chewing Gum on Reducing Anxiety and Stress: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.” Journal of Healthcare Engineering, vol. 2022, 31 Jan. 2022, pp. 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/8606693. Accessed 24 May 2023.
Mayer, Annyce, and Nabeel Hamzeh. “Beryllium and Other Metal-Induced Lung Disease.” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, Mar. 2015, pp. 178–184, https://doi.org/10.1097/mcp.0000000000000140. Accessed 24 May 2023.
Mickenautsch, Steffen, et al. “Sugar-Free Chewing Gum and Dental Caries: A Systematic Review.” Journal of Applied Oral Science, vol. 15, no. 2, Apr. 2007, pp. 83–88, https://doi.org/10.1590/s1678-77572007000200002.
R, Touger-Decker, and van Loveren C. “Sugars and Dental Caries.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1 Oct. 2003, pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/14522753/.
Shikany, James M., et al. “Randomized Controlled Trial of Chewing Gum for Weight Loss.” Obesity, vol. 20, no. 3, 10 Nov. 2011, pp. 547–552, https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2011.336. Accessed 24 May 2023.
Smith, Andrew P., and Martin Woods. “Effects of Chewing Gum on the Stress and Work of University Students.” Appetite, vol. 58, no. 3, June 2012, pp. 1037–1040, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.02.054.
Tabrizi, Reza, et al. “Does Gum Chewing Increase the Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders in Individuals with Gum Chewing Habits?” Journal of Craniofacial Surgery, vol. 25, no. 5, Sept. 2014, pp. 1818–1821, https://doi.org/10.1097/scs.0000000000000993.
“The Secret Science of Gum – American Chemical Society.” Www.acs.org, www.acs.org/education/whatischemistry/adventures-in-chemistry/secret-science-stuff/gum.html .USDA. “1 Block (8 G) Chewing Gum.” Fdc.nal.usda.gov, fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app.html#/food-details/168771/nutrients. Accessed 24 May 2023.
Next, check out some recent reviews you might find useful: